To read an ePub book, you need some kind of software that can open it and display it to you in the proper way, exactly like any other kind of file types.
I don't know about all phones, especially for Android ones, the set of preinstalled apps depends largely on the manufacturer choices.
Often, Google Play Books is preinstalled, but there are a lot of other ...
BlueFire Reader displays the text in multiple columns, and you can set the alignment to left or justified. The alignment setting shows up when you check the advanced settings box in the settings dialog (the gear icon in the toolbar).
Yes, a calibre plugin could do that. Does one? Not that I know of!
You could look at the Extract ISBN plugin (http://www.mobileread.com/forums/showthread.php?t=126727) for an example of pulling data out of the ePub, and any of the metadata search plugins for how to then use the information you've found in a web search.
Are you using the latest version, as I can see that there is a new release on the 6th of January. You shouldn't have to change the size of the text when you open the eBook back up, as many eReaders save it as a preference. The original size of the text is marked in the CSS.
May I also suggest using different ePub readers, such as Calibre as it is used more ...