Given the restriction of the book being viewable on the older eInk Kindles—no, you will not be able to replicate this layout perfectly. Particularly with images spanning page spreads, but also with precisely formatted blocks of floating text, your only real option for replication is a fixed layout ebook.
Fixed layout books, as you might expect from the name, lock the layout so that it cannot be changed. This allows for absolute positioning of page elements and precise control of positioning. Reflowable ebooks, on the other hand, are designed to be completely flexible, so that they can be viewed on devices of any size and so that users can change font size, typeface, margin, and any number of other display options.
Fixed layout books are largely limited to tablets; certainly, the older eInk Kindles do not support them. Instructions for creating fixed layout books are available in section 4 of the Kindle Publishing Guidelines. You may be able to use Amazon's InDesign plugin to create your file if you end up deciding to make a fixed layout ebook.
EDIT: Note that while it is theoretically possible to replicate your print book exactly by composing it entirely of screenshots of the book, Amazon mandates against this in section 3.6.7 of their guidelines: "Do not render large chunks of text as images. If an image contains whole paragraphs of text, it should not be an image. Instead, it should be HTML."