Recently I got a task to manually add a Table of Contents to a PDF ebook generated by someone who left it out. I didn't know how to do it at first so I googled a lot and found some small tools but none works really well. Finally I have to head to a commercial software called PDFpenPro, and it eventually fulfilled my needs.

My question is, since PDF is a open standard, why the excellent open-source editing tools are so scarce? I'm not an expert on ebooks and standards, but I still wonder what blocked programmers from building up great open-source tools?

Anyway, adding a TOC (and many other basic but useful editing) seems not a very difficult task, can we developer do it by ourselves, by making use of and contributing to some open-source libraries? Can anyone lists some handy resources I can count on?

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